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A useful guide to all Linux OS distributions.

In the world of Linux distributions, there are a variety of sizes and shapes. From tiny ones weighing just under 100 MB to 4GB monsters that are best installed on portable SSDs. There are also a number of specialized Linux distributions built for specific purposes. For instance, they could be designed to appeal to a wide range of users and also to meet individual needs. In this article, we will take a look at the different distributions of Linux and talk about some of the most important ones. You might be looking for the kind of operating system that serves the kind of need that you have. For instance, you want to have Windows and Linux together on your computer or you want to use a Linux server. Follow along with this article to find the right Linux distro of your choice.

1. Ubuntu

Open-source Linux distribution Ubuntu is operated by Canonical. Canonical provides security updates and support for every Ubuntu release and oversees its ongoing development. There are multiple editions of Ubuntu, including core, server, and desktop, so it can be used on various types of machines. It is suitable for use on computers, servers, supercomputers, cloud computing, and more. Many reasons make Ubuntu popular, including the fact that it’s a free and open-source solution that’s easy to use and secure. Ubuntu is well-supported in the Canonical community due to its popularity and collaborative nature of the open source. Ubuntu offers enhanced security within its operating system, and it is user-friendly and customizable.

2. Debian

Free operating systems (OS) typically use a Unix-like kernel called Linux. It comes with a wide range of other software components developed by free software organizations, such as the GNU Project. The Debian Project developed Debian, an open source project, with more than 1,000 people worldwide contributing to its development. Debian can be downloaded or purchased on a CD, DVD, Blu-ray disc, or USB flash drive for a fee. A Debian distribution based on the Linux kernel, Debian GNU/Linux is the primary distribution, and it is the only one that has been officially released and considered ready for production. Debian GNU/Linux is generally referred to as the Debian OS; The Debian Project, however, has also worked with other kernels, including Debian GNU/FreeBSD and Debian GNU/Hurd.

3. Linux Mint

In general, Linux Mint is considered an easy way to switch from Windows and Mac to open-source operating systems. Especially if you want to avoid Windows 11. This great version of Linux has an easy installation process, a great interface, and lots of features that make it easy to use. In this guide to Mint, we’ll show you how to use it. We have a guide to reinstalling Mint without losing your preferences if you’ve already installed Mint.

4. Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Enterprise Linux or RHEL, previously known as Red Hat Linux Advanced Server, is an enterprise Linux operating system (OS) developed by Red Hat for businesses. Thousands of vendors and cloud providers are certified to run RHEL. The RHEL distribution provides users with a reliable, consistent foundation across environments, as well as all the tools they need to deliver application services and workloads rapidly. RHEL is based on a free, open-source model like all Linux distributions.

Red Hat used to offer RHEL for free, and users only had to pay for support. However, Red Hat has created two versions of RHEL since then. One version has less frequent version releases. The other is Fedora, developed by the Fedora Project. it is updated more frequently and offers the latest technologies. Fedora is actively developed by a large community of developers. Red Hat incorporates Fedora features into RHEL. Despite the fact that Red Hat provides its source code for download, verbatim copies of its distribution are not permitted. however, users can view the source code and customize it as needed. The RHEL OS supports a variety of workloads in physical, virtual, and cloud environments. RHEL editions are available for servers, mainframes, SAP applications, desktops, and OpenStack.

5. CentOS

An open-source, enterprise-class free operating system, CentOS (Community Enterprise Operating System) is practically compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). “Gregory Kurtzer” is the founder of CentOS. CentOS developers create a product that is highly comparable to RHEL using RHEL source code. It is a community-driven free software project that provides a robust platform for open-source communities to grow. CentOS provides a development platform in one of the best and most powerful distributions available. It is highly adaptable, as well as safe and strong. In addition, it offers several corporate-level security updates, making it an excellent choice for any application.

6. elementary OS

It was a revolutionary step in the Linux desktop space when the elementary OS team released it a decade ago. Cassidy had a vision that has been echoed by developers and contributors since, and it has been adopted by users across the globe. The Pantheon Desktop is one of the best desktops with aesthetics and productivity. Elementary has grown over the years. the user base and popularity have increased because it has been stable based on Ubuntu LTS. And it is a perfect desktop for those wanting a macOS-like experience in Linux. a Flatpak-based App Store with curated applications is among the best in the Linux ecosystem. It’s not profitable to run a company with free software unless you have a corporate backup and other revenue streams.

7. Arch Linux

It’s great that Linux distros are available for every skill level. if you’re new to Linux, you’ll find Ubuntu or Linux Mint to be good choices if you want something that works immediately (or rather, from an ISO file). If, on the other hand, you prefer Linux and Unix and like to customize things a little (or perhaps, a lot), you might consider Arch Linux. In the Arch community, simplicity has a different meaning than in the Ubuntu community, since it has been around for a while. Installing Arch gives you a base system with the essential tools to get up and running, which you can customize as you see fit. This system is ideal for people who enjoy tinkering and playing with things. Ubuntu tries to be all things to all people. Arch’s attitude puts the user in charge of everything installed on their system.

In addition to its stability, Arch differs from other distributions in that it aims to have a “rolling release” system, which means instead of having a fixed release date, the user should always install the latest version of every package. There may be some breakages from time to time, but every package will always be up to date without having to wait for upstream changes to be incorporated. In case this interests you, Arch is pretty easy to install. Just download the ISO torrent from Arch’s website. If you’re installing Arch for the first time, I would recommend using a spare computer or virtual machine. In this way, you’ll have a working system to refer to Arch’s extensive online documentation.

Wrapping Up

In this article, you learned about the features of different Linux operating systems such as Ubuntu, Debian, Mint, CentOS, REHL, Arch, and elementary OS. Of course, there are many other distributions of Linux that we have taken for granted. Using the introduced OSes, you can find the kind of Linux Distro you are looking for. Notice that as a newbie, it is better to start with Mint as it is much closer to Windows than other OSes. If you are looking for a most common and useful distro Debian and Ubuntu are some of the best recommendations.

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Getting Started with Nginx on Linux: a Complete Tutorial

Nginx

Nginx pronounced Engine-Ex, is a popular and open-source, lightweight, and high-performance web server software that also acts as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache. Nginx is easy to configure in order to serve static web content or to act as a proxy server.It can be deployed to also serve dynamic content on the network using FastCGI, SCGI handlers for scripts, WSGI application servers or Phusion Passenger modules, and it can serve as a software load balancer. Nginx uses an asynchronous event-driven approach, rather than threads, to handle requests. Nginx’s modular event-driven architecture can provide predictable performance under high loads.
In this tutorial, we are going to get started with Nginx on Linux and use the terminal commands to install and configure a test on it. You will get familiar with all the codes and commands for setting Nginx up and running on your operating system.

What you need to get started:

1. This tutorial is based on Linux. If you are working with Ubuntu 20.04 Linux or Linux Mint, or any other OS of the Linux family, you have a suitable operating system for the following tutorial.
2. A user account with sudo or root privileges.
3. Access to a terminal window/command line

Getting Started with Nginx

1. Installation

First off, you need to update software repositories. This helps make sure that the latest updates and patches are installed. Open a terminal window and enter the following: sudo apt-get update Now, to install Nginx from Ubuntu repository, enter the following command in the terminal: sudo apt-get install nginx If you are on Fedora, you should instead enter this command to install Nginx. sudo dnf install nginx And if you are on CentOS or RHEL, the installation is done using this command: sudo yum install epel-release && yum install nginx finally, we test the installation success by entering: nginx -v If the installation has been successful, You should get a result like this: nginx version: nginx/1.18.0 (Ubuntu)

2. Controlling the Nginx Service

Next, we should get familiar with the controlling commands. Using these commands, you will be able to start, enable, stop and disable the Nginx. First off, we should check the status of Nginx service. To do so, you can use the following command: sudo systemctl status nginx And you can see the result:

As you can it is activated and up and running. If it is not activated, you can first start by entering this command in the terminal: sudo systemctl start nginx And then, you will be able to enable it using the following command: sudo systemctl enable nginx If you want to stop the Nginx web service, you can first stop it: sudo systemctl stop nginx And then disable it: sudo systemctl disable nginx Also, if you want to reload the Nginx web service, you can use the following command: sudo systemctl reload nginx And for a hard restart, there is a command as below: sudo systemctl restart nginx

3. UnComplicated Firewall Commands:

Nginx needs access through the system’s firewall. To do this, Nginx installs a set of profiles for the Ubuntu default ufw (Uncomplicated Firewall). To display the available Nginx profiles use this command: sudo ufw app list And you can see the result. Neglect the results other than that of Nginx.

To get Nginx access through the default Ubuntu firewall, enter the following: sudo ufw allow 'nginx http' Then you need to refresh the firewall settings by entering: sudo ufw reload For https traffic, enter: sudo ufw allow 'nginx https' And for both you can use: sudo ufw allow 'nginx full'

4. Running a Test

To begin running a test, you should first make sure that the Nginx service is running, by checking the status as mentioned earlier. Open a web browser, and enter the following web address: http://127.0.0.1 And you should be able to see the following result containing a page with a welcome statement.

Now, if the system does not have a graphical interface, the Nginx Welcome page can be loaded in the terminal using curl: sudo apt-get install curl By entering the following command, you should be able to see the Welcome page contents in the terminal: curl 127.0.0.1 And the result is as expected:

5. Configuring a Server Block

In Nginx, a server block is a configuration that works as its own server. By default, Nginx has one server block preconfigured. It is located at /var/www/html. However, it can be configured with multiple server blocks for different sites.
Note that in this tutorial, we will use test_domain.com for the domain name. This may be replaced with your own domain name.
In a terminal, create a new directory by entering the following command: sudo mkdir -p /var/www/test_domain.com/html Use chmod to configure ownership and permission rules: sudo chown –R $USER:$USER /var/www/test_domain.com
sudo chmod –R 755 /var/www/test_domain.com
Open index.html for editing in a text editor of your choice (we will use the Nano text editor): sudo nano /var/www/test_domain.com/html/index.html You will see the HTML code like below in it. You edit it if you like, but we will keep it this way.

Press CTRL+o to write the changes, then CTRL+x to exit.
Now, open the configuration file for editing: sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/test_domain.com Enter the following code in it: server {
listen 80;
root /var/www/test_domain.com/html;
index index.html index.htm index.nginx.debian.html;
server_name test_domain.com www.test_domain.com;
location / {
try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
}
}
So that you have the following result:

Press CTRL+o to write the changes, then CTRL+x to exit.
Next, create a symbolic link between the server block and the startup directory by entering the following: sudo ln –s /etc/nginx/sites-available/test_domain.com /etc/nginx/sites-enabled Afterward, you should restart Nginx by running the following command: sudo systemctl restart nginx Then, open /etc/hosts for editing: sudo nano /etc/hosts You will see the following result:

Next, enter this command after the last line: 127.0.1.1 test_domain.com www.test_domain.com So that it becomes like this:

Now if you open a browser window and navigate to test_domain.com (or the domain name you configured in Nginx). You should see the message you entered in HTML file you opened with nano. Notice that there were already an HTML script in there and we didn’t change it. But anyway, if you have changed the HTML file, you will see the result of your edition different from ours:


Conclusion

In this tutorial, we have provided the guidelines for installing, starting, and setting Nginx up and running on Linux. Also we tested the configuration and in the end, we configured an Nginx server block. We hope you enjoyed this quick Nginx configuration tutorial and it has been helpful for you.

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